Motorcycle Design Book


Table of Contents

Chapter 1:  The Motorcycle Industry

Powered two wheeled vehicles. A Brief History. Motorcycle Systems and Components. Riders and Commuters. Motorcycle Segments. The Industry. Market. Manufactures. Racing. Jobs in Industry. The Design Process. Tools for Design. Simulation. Testing. Safety. Rider Training. Motorcycle Simulators. The road ahead.

Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Motorcycle Dynamics

Overview. Geometry. Degrees of freedom and coordinates. Angular velocity. Acceleration. Steering kinematics. Steady Cornering. Lateral acceleration. Roll angle. Steer response. Cornering-transient. Roll dynamics. Capsize stability. Rider stabilisation. Counter-steering. Acceleration performance. Engine power. Tyre adherence. Tyre load. Rear tyre skidding. Wheeling. Maximum acceleration. Braking. Rear braking. Front braking. Combined braking. The motorcycle performance envelope. Governing equations. Motorcycle pitching limits. Tyre friction ellipse. Tyre adherence limits. The g-g envelope. The influence of speed.

Chapter 3:  Tyres

Motorcycle tyre fundamentals. Tyre designation. Tyre structure. Tyre forces and torques. Geometry. Contact patch. Pure rolling. Longitudinal slip. Sideslip. Turnslip. Spinslip. The Bare Minimum Tyre Model. Linear model with saturation. Combined forces and Friction Ellipse. The Brush Tyre Model. Longitudinal force. Sideslip force. Self-aligning torque. Camber force. Twisting torque. Combined slip and final remarks. Justification for the Bare Minimum tyre model. The Magic Formula Tyre model. The Magic Formula. Pure longitudinal force. Pure lateral force. Combined longitudinal and lateral forces. Rolling resistance. Yaw torque. Overturning torque. Magic Formula versions. Transient models. Relaxation equation.

Chapter 4:  Powertrain

Power unit. Combustion engines. Electric motors. Batteries. Gearbox. Final drive. Performance and Energy Efficiency. Driving Forces. Gearbox Matching. Acceleration Performance. Fuel consumption. Engine emission legislation. Energy losses of electric motorcycles. All-wheel drive motorcycles. Regenerative Braking.

Chapter 5:   Suspensions

Overview. Front suspension. Telescopic fork. Push arm. Trailing arm. Telelever. Duolever. Rear suspension Swinging arm. Paralever. Suspension Force.  Spring. Damper. Suspension analysis. Kinematics. Statics. Equivalent suspensions. Vertical Stiffness and Damping.

Chapter 6:  Response to road excitation

Road characterisation. Frequency decomposition. Random roads spectra. Comfort assessment. Handling assessment. In-plane vibration modes. Heave mode. Pitch mode. Front and rear hop modes. Modes coupling. The Half-Motorcycle model. Equations of motion. Response to a road step input. Frequency Response Functions. Response to random excitation. Wheelbase Filtering. The motorcycle as a multi-input system. Front and rear wheel correlation. Response to road excitation. Non-linear damping. Suspension Optimisation. Handling optimisation. Comfort optimisation. Balancing handling and comfort. Time domain versus frequency domain methods.

Chapter 7:  Attitude under Traction and Braking

Pitch under traction. Anti-Lift and anti-squat. Front suspensions analysis. Swinging arm, chain versus shaft transmission. Paralever. Pitch under braking. Anti-dive and anti-rise. Fork analysis. Push versus Trailing arm. Bump steer. Rear Suspensions analysis. Engine brake.

Chapter 8:   Stability

Fundamentals of stability. The concept of stability. State space formulation. Stability of linear systems. The single degree of freedom oscillator. Motorcycles modes. Weave, Wobble, and Capsize. Simplified wobble analysis. Stability in Straight Running. Equations of motion. State-space formulation. Root loci. Weave. Wobble. Capsize. Guidelines to improve stability. Motorcycle geometry. Mass distribution. Front frame. Chassis Compliance. Stability under Acceleration or Braking. Stability in Curve.

Chapter 9:  Handling

Steady cornering. Roll angle. Yaw Rate. Steer Angle. Steer Torque. Cornering Transient. Steering response. Lane Change. U Turn. Slalom. Obstacle Avoidance. Handling assessment.

Chapter 10:  A Case Study

Design specifications. Vehicle definition. Architecture. Geometry and layout. Powertrain. Brakes. Suspensions. Performance Assessment. Acceleration and Braking. Fuel consumption. Comfort. Stability. Handling.

Coming soon !

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